The petition, signed by 72 ,000 people and compiled by the National Federation of Women's Institutes (WI) since last July, was handed to Caroline Spelman MP to read out in the UK House of Commons.
The move keeps farmgate milk prices firmly in the public spotlight only a week after the UK's competition watchdog said it would investigate further alleged unfair treatment of dairy farmers, as part of its grocery supply chain probe.
Almost 1,000 dairy farmers have left the industry over the last year, industry figures show, prompting concerns about the country's future milk supply.
Average prices paid to milk producers have fallen from 24 pence per litre (ppl) 10 years ago to around 18ppl, below the cost of production for some.
Fay Mansell, NFWI Chair said: "British dairy farmers are struggling to survive. They are routinely being paid below the cost of production and being systematically forced out of the industry. Supermarkets are making profit selling milk at the expense of dairy farmers."
Several farmer groups, including Farmers For Action and the Farmers' Union of Wales, joined the WI to hand over the petition in London, Tuesday.
Notably absent was the National Farmers' Union (NFU), the country's biggest union for dairy farmers, however. NFU officials have sought to publicly distance themselves from groups like Farmers For Action, which are more activist.
There is also an industry split on the role government should play.
Arguments broke out at a dairy industry conference last year, between those who wanted a government regulator for milk prices and others, mainly from the NFU and industry-wide association Dairy UK, who insisted problems could only be solved on the free market.
Andrew Hemming, vice-president of Farmers For Action, told DairyReporter.com the petition would at least put pressure on retailers. "We're very grateful to the WI. This will be another thorn in the side of supermarkets."
It is understood that one major dairy firm also anticipates a big impact from the WI petition.
The Competition Commission reported last week that it had concerns over farmgate milk prices and would investigate the situation further, as part of its UK grocery supply chain probe.
It called for more evidence to back up alleged unfair treatment of farmers, something both dairy processors and supermarkets vigorously deny.